In the north, east and centre, many groups are nomadic or semi-nomadic, grazing livestock across large areas – see Pastoralism.
These groups include the Fulani, Tubu (or Toubou), Maba/Ouaddai and Zaghawa peoples. It was spread by Arab traders and merchants from as early as the 11th century – see History & Politics.
Holidays in Chad mostly centre around the main Muslim and Christian festivals.
But local festivals are also held in certain areas.
Here, the largest group is the Sara, who make up around a third of the population.
Along the coasts, land was reclaimed from the sea, and, in the interior, lakes and marshes were drained, especially alongside the many rivers.There, perhaps more than anywhere else in the country, the Dutch tradition of social tolerance is readily encountered.Prostitution, “soft-drug” (This relative independence of outlook was evident as early as the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Dutch rejected monarchical controls and took a relatively enlightened view of other cultures, especially when they brought wealth and capital to the country’s trading centres.The Dutch economy is open and generally internationalist in outlook.With The Dutch reputation for tolerance was tested in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, when an increase in immigration from non-European Union countries and a populist turn in politics resulted in growing and even xenophobia, marked by two race-related political assassinations, in 20, and the government’s requirement that immigrants pass an expensive ‘‘integration’’ test before they enter the country. If the Netherlands were to lose the protection of its dunes and dikes, the most densely populated part of the country would be inundated (largely by the sea but also in part by the rivers).